Explain and critically discuss the rules of international law applicable to the
construction and operation of hydro-electric power projects on international
watercourses. Your essay should make reference to one or more specific examples.
The rights of victims within the Criminal Justice System (CJS) have evolved over a
period of time. Criminology was predominantly focussed on the perpetrator
experience and it is only in the 20th century that great strides were made to study
the experience of the victim in context of the crime. Ultimately, the focus did move to
the victim experience also and this has led to the evolution of rights or victims within
the CJS and to the evolution of support systems for the benefit of victims.
Hate crime may typically be described as criminal behaviour that is motivated by a
formulation of prejudice (Hutton, 2009, p.2). Such prejudices may be racial, religious,
gender-specific, sexually oriented etc. The important factor in such crimes is that of
‘othering’. The perpetrator of the crime believes or attaches some pejorative value to the
victim that may be based on the race of the victim or the religion that he belongs to.
Having said that, hate crime is a term, whose definition is fraught with difficulties.
One of the important critical criminology perspective is the need for greater focus to be
trained on corporate crimes and crimes committed by powerful people. Sykes (1974)
pointed out that in the 1960s, there was a shift in sociological perspectives towards crime
and criminal behaviour. It was felt that “people in positions of power had traditionally been
analyzed in terms of bureaucratic roles aimed at the rational accomplishment of
The relationship between mental health and crime is complex. The first complexity that
arises in this issue is the definition of mental disorder. The legal definition of mental
disorder is found in the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA 1983), s 1 which provides that
mental disorder is ‘any disorder or disability of the mind’.
Chief Justice Dickson for the Supreme Court of Canada in R. v. Oakes ( 1
S.C.R. 103, at para 29), stated that “An individual charged with a criminal offence faces
grave social and personal consequences, including potential loss of physical liberty,
subjection to social stigma and ostracism from the community as well as other social,
psychological and economic harms”.